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专家:工薪阶层纳税占个税总额70% 税距税级存调整空间

2016-11-15 21:19:46    来源:http://hxbyfz.com    作者:  阅读:次  【打印此页】

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  免征点、税级与税距的调整
乐彩网  免征起点是个税改革图谱中公众最为关注的内容。初略计算,自3500元免征点确立以来的4年时间中,城镇居民人均可支配收入增长了26.98%,物价水平累积上涨8.6%,如果再算上发飙的房价,城市居民的生活支出用大幅提高来形容一点也不为过。同时像北上广深这样的一线城市,3500元也就是一个低收入人群,如广州市,2015年非私营单位在岗职工月平均工资达到了6764元,即便是整个广东省也达到了5525元,相比之下刚刚够着免征点的那点工资的确倍显寒酸,自然公众也就有提高免征点的愿望。事实上,不仅目前的免征标准应适当上调,而且今后还须根据居民收入与物价指数的变动状态建立起灵敏的动态调整机制。

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  扣除基础上的课税模式更新
  由于技术的约束与地区性的差别较大,我国并没有选择将各种所得合并在一起并按统一方法扣缴的综合所得税的课税模式,而是确定了比较折中的综合与分类相结合的个税改革目标。自然,综合课税所涉及的人群或者种类可能只是一部分,其中最主要的有两个方面:一是工资薪金所得和劳务报酬所得可以最先合并,以让劳动所得享有同样公平的税收待遇;二是对于中低收入人群,可采取以家庭为征收单位,以实质性地减轻他们的负担。另外,对于初创企业经营者,政府鼓励周期内的所得也可以合并进工资薪酬之内,以更好地支持他们度过原始资本积累期。

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  收入调节功能的有限强化
乐彩网  个税的最重要功能就是调节收入分配,缩小贫富差距,现在看来,这一功能远没有得到彰显。一方面,照目前不到一万亿的个税规模,其调节能力显然十分有限;另一方面,尽管三档之后各档税率的累积幅度只有5%,但税务机关的信息显示,个税税率最高的两档基本无用,极少有人在这个税档纳税。这说明月收入超过6万元的人群的个税没有被有效征管,个税的调节功能不但没有实现,还有逆向调节之嫌。更为重要的是,除了承担不轻的个税之外,中等收入人群与低收入群体一样还是增值税和消费税等间接税的贡献者,并且通过购物消费对国家税收进行贡献的人中还包括近7000万名吃低保的特困人群。显然,由于间接税的过重,其累退性不但抵消了个税的调节功能,甚至还强化了收入不平等,进一步降低间接税已成必然。

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  (ZUOZHEXIGUANGDONGWAIYUWAIMAODAXUEJINGJIXUEJIAOSHOU)

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